Toe-walking attributable to venous malformation of the calf muscle
Soft tissue venous malformations of muscles may produce musculoskeletal deformities caused by contracture of the involved muscle. When the venous malformation involves the flexor muscles of the leg, equinus deformity and toe-walking may occur. Three patients with unilateral toe-walking secondary to venous malformation of the calf muscle, showing the classic presentation of this unusual condition, are presented. Several methods of treating the deformity and the underlying venous malformation are discussed, and the current literature on intramuscular venous malformations, including their natural history, diagnoses, treatment options, and outcomes, is reviewed. Based on our experience and review of the literature, percutaneous sclerotherapy may be a viable option for treatment of venous malformations of the calf musculature that result in a toe-walking deformity.