Multicenter Analysis of Midterm Clinical Outcomes of Arthroscopic Labral Repair in the Hip: Minimum 5-Year Follow-up
Background: The technique of hip arthroscopic surgery is advancing and becoming more commonly performed. However, most current reported results are limited to short-term follow-up, and therefore, the durability of the procedure is largely unknown.
Purpose: To perform a multicenter analysis of mid-term clinical outcomes of arthroscopic hip labral repair and determine the risk factors for patient outcomes.
Study design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.
Methods: Prospectively collected data of primary hip arthroscopic labral repair performed at 4 high-volume centers between 2008 and 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients were assessed preoperatively and postoperatively with the visual analog scale (VAS), modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), and Hip Outcome Score-Sports-Specific Subscale (HOS-SSS) at a minimum of 5 years' follow-up. Factors including age, body mass index (BMI), Tönnis grade, and cartilage grade were analyzed in relation to outcome scores, and revision rates were determined. Failure was defined as subsequent ipsilateral hip surgery, including revision arthroscopic surgery and open hip surgery.
Results: A total of 303 patients (101 male, 202 female) with a mean age of 32.0 years (range, 10.7-58.9 years) were followed for a mean of 5.7 years (range, 5.0-7.9 years). Patients achieved mean improvements in VAS of 3.5 points, mHHS of 20.1 points, and HOS-SSS of 29.3 points. Thirty-seven patients (12.2%) underwent revision arthroscopic surgery, and 12 (4.0%) underwent periacetabular osteotomy, resurfacing, or total hip arthroplasty during the study period. Patients with a BMI >30 kg/m2 had a mean mHHS score 9.5 points lower and a mean HOS-SSS score 15.9 points lower than those with a BMI ≤30 kg/m2 ( P < .01). Patients aged >35 years at surgery had a mean mHHS score 4.5 points lower and a HOS-SSS score 6.7 points lower than those aged ≤35 years ( P = .03). Patients with Tönnis grade 2 radiographs demonstrated a 12.5-point worse mHHS score ( P = .02) and a 23.0-point worse HOS-SSS score ( P < .01) when compared with patients with Tönnis grade 0.
Conclusion: Patients demonstrated significant improvements in VAS, mHHS, and HOS-SSS scores after arthroscopic labral repair. However, those with Tönnis grade 2 changes preoperatively, BMI >30 kg/m2, and age >35 years at the time of surgery demonstrated significantly decreased mHHS and HOS-SSS scores at final follow-up.