A Multicenter Study of Radiographic Measures Predicting Failure of Arthroscopy in Borderline Hip Dysplasia: Beware of the Tönnis Angle
Background: Hip arthroscopy has been previously demonstrated to be an effective treatment for adult mild hip dysplasia. There are many radiographic parameters used to classify hip dysplasia, but to date few studies have demonstrated which parameters are of most importance for predicting surgical outcomes.
Purpose: To identify preoperative radiographic parameters that are associated with poor outcomes in the arthroscopic treatment of adult mild hip dysplasia.
Study design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3.
Methods: Radiographic analysis was performed in patients with mild hip dysplasia who underwent arthroscopic surgery between 2009 and 2015. Preoperative radiographic measurements included lateral center edge angle, Tönnis angle, neck shaft angle, anterior center edge angle, alpha angle, femoral head extrusion index, and acetabular depth-to-width ratio. Failure was defined as failure to achieve the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) utilizing the modified Harris Hip Score or as the need for secondary operation. The equal variance t test was used to analyze radiographic parameters. Statistical significance was determined using a P value of .05.
Results: A total of 373 hips underwent analysis with an average follow-up of 41 months (range, 24-102 months). Of these, 46 hips (12%) required secondary operation, and 95 (25%) failed to meet the MCID. The overall failure rate was 32.4%. There was no single measurement or combination thereof associated with failure to reach the MCID. Higher preoperative Tönnis angles were associated with secondary operation, with a mean of 6.7° (95% CI, 5.3°-8.1°) in the secondary operation group versus 4.8° (95% CI, 4.4°-5.3°) in the nonsecondary operation group (P = .006). The odds ratio was 1.12 (95% CI, 1.0-1.2; P = .05) per degree increase in Tönnis angle for secondary operation. In patients with a Tönnis angle >10°, 84% required secondary operation.
Conclusion: Higher Tönnis angles portend a higher risk for revision surgery. The probability of secondary operation was increased by a magnitude of 1.12 with each degree increase in the Tönnis angle. In patients with a Tönnis angle >10°, 84% required a secondary operation.