Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Patient-Reported Outcomes in Hip Arthroscopic Surgery: A Matched-Pair Controlled Study With a Minimum 2-Year Follow-up
Purpose: The rate of hip arthroscopic surgery has recently increased; however, there is limited literature examining patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in cigarette smokers.
Methods: Data were collected on all patients who underwent primary hip arthroscopic surgery from February 2008 to July 2015. A retrospective analysis of the data was then conducted to identify patients who reported cigarette use at the time of the index procedure. Patients were matched 1:2 (smoking:nonsmoking) based on sex, age within 5 years, labral treatment (repair vs reconstruction vs debridement), workers' compensation status, and body mass index within 5 kg/m2. All patients were assessed preoperatively and postoperatively using 4 PRO measures: the modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), Non-Arthritic Hip Score (NAHS), Hip Outcome Score-Sport-Specific Subscale (HOS-SSS), and International Hip Outcome Tool-12 (iHOT-12). Pain was estimated using a visual analog scale. Satisfaction was measured on a scale from 0 to 10. Significance was set at P < .05.