Patients Obtain Meaningful Clinical Benefit After Hip Arthroscopy Despite Preoperative Psychological Distress: A Propensity-Matched Analysis of Mid-term Outcomes
Purpose: To evaluate the influence of baseline psychological distress on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) after arthroscopic hip surgery for femoroacetabular impingement at a minimum of 5 years.
Methods: Demographic and intraoperative data were prospectively collected from patients who underwent primary arthroscopic hip surgery for femoroacetabular impingement and labral tears after failure of conservative management between June 2012 and December 2014. Included patients had preoperative and minimum 5-year postoperative PROs and visual analog scale scores for pain and satisfaction. The 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) Mental Component Summary (MCS) score was used to stratify patients into 2 cohorts: Patients with an average or above-average score (SF-12 MCS score ≥ 50) were considered psychologically non-distressed, whereas those who scored below average (SF-12 MCS score < 50) were considered to have psychological distress. Distressed patients were propensity matched by age, sex, and body mass index to an equal number of non-distressed patients.
Results: Of the 153 hips that met the inclusion criteria, 117 (76.5%) had minimum 5-year follow-up. Eighty-two hips were included in the final analysis after propensity matching, with 41 in both the distressed and non-distressed cohorts. Preoperatively, patients in the distressed cohort reported inferior scores for all PROs. There was a significant difference in the SF-12 MCS score between groups at 2 years, but similar scores were observed for all other PROs. At minimum 5-year follow-up, there were no differences between groups for any PRO. There were no differences in the rates of achieving the minimal clinically important difference for all PROs or in achieving the patient acceptable symptomatic state for the modified Harris Hip Score.
Conclusions: Patients with baseline psychological distress may have a lower functional status at the time of presentation but still gain meaningful clinical benefit and pain improvement from arthroscopic hip surgery, with mid-term outcomes comparable to those obtained by patients without preoperative psychological distress.
Level of evidence: Level III, retrospective comparative study.