Utility of 3D Planning Software in Understanding Residual Proximal Femoral Deformity for Planning of Revision Hip Arthroscopy


Background: During the early evolution of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) treatment, undercorrection of femoral deformity was a leading cause of hip arthroscopy failures. As the pendulum has swung, overresection of femoral deformity has increased in prevalence as a cause of persistent hip pain after arthroscopy. Computed tomography (CT) scans are increasingly being used in hip arthroscopy for preoperative planning purposes and may allow for improved 3-dimensional (3D) assessment of complex femoral deformities after previous femoroplasty.

Purpose: To assess whether CT scans provide additional utility over standard radiographs in understanding proximal femoral morphology in patients being evaluated for revision hip arthroscopy after previous femoroplasty in the setting of FAI.

Study design: Cohort study (Diagnosis); Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: Preoperative CT scans and standard radiographs were obtained in 80 patients who underwent revision hip arthroscopy for FAI. The anteroposterior and Dunn radiographic views were used to assess patients for residual proximal femoral deformity and were compared with the CT scan views using a commercially available software program. Determinations of underresection were made using alpha angle, while overresection was determined according to a previously described technique. Chi-square tests were performed to determine statistical significance between radiographic and CT classifications of overresection, underresection, and concomitant over- and underresection. A kappa value was calculated to determine the agreement between measurements on the radiographs and CT scans.

Results: There were 30 patients (37.5%) for whom the CT scans revealed information about femoral morphology that was not detected on the radiographs. The kappa value of agreement was 0.28 between CT and radiographic measurements. Underresected cams were detected in 30 patients (37.5%) on CT scans versus 17 patients (21.3%) on radiographs (P = .024). Overresected cams were detected in 31 patients (38.8%) on CT scans versus 14 patients (17.5%) on radiographs (P = .0049). Concomitant areas of under- and overresection were detected in 12 patients (15.0%) on CT scans versus 3 patients (3.8%) on radiographs (P = .027).

Conclusion: CT scans with 3D planning software may be more sensitive than traditional radiographic views at detecting aberrant proximal femoral anatomy in the setting of failed FAI surgery. The use of 3D planning software may be considered as an adjunctive tool to better understand complex deformity in the proximal femur for the planning of revision hip arthroscopy.

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