Sex-Based Differences in Athletes Undergoing Primary Hip Arthroscopy With Labral Reconstruction: A Propensity-Matched Analysis With Minimum 2-Year Follow-up
Background: There is a paucity of literature comparing sex-based outcome differences in athletes after primary hip arthroscopy with labral reconstruction for femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS) and irreparable labral tears.
Purpose: To report sex-based differences in clinical characteristics, patient-reported outcome (PRO) scores, and return-to-sports (RTS) rates in athlete who underwent primary hip arthroscopy with labral reconstruction.
Methods: Data were reviewed for recreational, organized amateur, high school, collegiate, and professional athletes who underwent primary hip arthroscopy with labral reconstruction for FAIS and irreparable labral tears between July 2014 and May 2019. Inclusion criteria included preoperative and minimum 2-year postoperative PRO scores (modified Harris Hip Score, Non-Arthritic Hip Score, Hip Outcome Score-Sports Specific Subscale, International Hip Outcome Tool [iHOT-12], and visual analog scale [VAS] for pain). Exclusion criteria were Tönnis grade >1, hip dysplasia (lateral center-edge angle, <18°), or prior ipsilateral hip surgery/conditions. Patients were divided into groups by sex and were propensity-matched in a 1:1 ratio by age, body mass index, graft type, labral tear size, and sports level.
Results: A total of 101 hips were eligible, and 94 hips (93.1%) had a minimum 2-year follow-up. Twenty-nine female athlete hips were propensity-matched to 29 male athlete hips. Female athletes underwent higher rates of capsular repair (79.3% vs 24.1% for men; P < .001) and lower rates of acetabular microfracture (0.0% vs 20.7% for men; P = .024). Both female and male athletes experienced significant improvement on all PRO scores (P < .001 for all), high RTS rates (women, 84% vs men, 80.8%), and high rates of achieving the minimal clinically important difference for the iHOT-12 and VAS pain (women, 88.5% vs men, 71.4% for both) and achieving the patient acceptable symptom state for the iHOT-12 (women, 88.5% vs men, 71.4%), with no significant difference between the sexes.
Conclusion: Despite different clinical characteristics and surgical procedures, both female and male athletes undergoing primary hip arthroscopy with labral reconstruction had significant improvements in all PROs at the minimum 2-year follow-up, high RTS rates, and similar rates of achieving the minimal clinically important difference and patient acceptable symptom state.