'Workers' Compensation Patients Improved After Hip Arthroscopy for Labral Tears: A 5-Year Outcome Propensity Score-Matched Study
Background: The workers' compensation (WC) status has been associated with inferior outcomes in orthopaedic procedures and is usually excluded from clinical outcome studies. Therefore, comparative studies based on WC status are scarce.
Purpose: (1) To determine outcomes of patients with WC claims treated with hip arthroscopy for labral tears at a minimum 5-year follow-up and (2) to compare these findings with a propensity score-matched control group without WC claims.
Study design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.
Methods: Patients were propensity score matched to a control group without WC claims. Data were prospectively collected for all patients undergoing hip arthroscopy. Patients were included if they received primary hip arthroscopy for labral tears in the setting of femoroacetabular impingement, had a WC claim, and had preoperative and minimum 5-year follow-up patient-reported outcomes ([PROs]; modified Harris Hip Score [mHHS], Non-Arthritic Hip Score [NAHS], Hip Outcome Score-Sports Specific Subscale [HOS-SSS], and visual analog scale [VAS] for pain). Clinical outcomes were measured using the Patient Acceptable Symptom State (PASS), minimal clinically important difference (MCID), and maximum outcome improvement satisfaction threshold (MOI).
Results: A total of 111 from 132 (84.1%) eligible WC patients met the inclusion criteria with an average follow-up time of 80.3 ± 37.3 months. WC cases demonstrated significant improvement from preoperatively to a minimum 5-year follow-up for mHHS, NAHS, HOS-SSS, and VAS for pain (P < .05). WC patients returned to work at a 66% rate, with an average clearance time of 4.7 months to light duty and 9.5 months to heavy duty. When compared with the control group, the WC group demonstrated lower pre- and postoperative PROs (P < .05); however, WC cases had a greater magnitude of improvement (ΔmHHS [P = .0012], ΔNAHS [P < .001], and ΔHOS-SSS [P = .012]). Rates of achieving MCID and MOI were similar in both groups (P > .05). The WC group went on to receive a future arthroscopy in 19 cases (17.1%), while 10 cases (4.5%) in the control group required revision arthroscopy (P < .001). Patients in both the WC and the control groups converted to total hip arthroplasty at similar rates (13.3% and 15.4%, respectively; P > .05).
Conclusion: Patients with WC claims treated with hip arthroscopic surgery showed significant improvement and high rates of returning to work at a minimum 5-year follow-up. Although having lower scores in PROs and achieving PASS rates, no differences were found in MCID and MOI rates. Furthermore, WC patients had a greater magnitude of improvement from preoperatively to a minimum 5-year follow-up after hip arthroscopy. Therefore, even though more studies are needed to determine the causes of inconsistent outcomes in the WC population, hip arthroscopy can effectively treat labral tears in the setting of femoroacetabular impingement, regardless of the WC status.
Keywords: femoroacetabular impingement; hip arthroscopic surgery; labral tear; outcomes; workers’ compensation.